Exosomes have emerged as promising nanocarriers for drug delivery and targeted therapy, as alternatives to stem cell therapy.

Exosomes are endosome-derived small membrane vesicles, approximately 30 to 150 nm in diameter, and are released into extracellular fluids by cells in all living systems. They are generated by many cell types and contain proteins ,lipids and also mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs).

Exosomes are well suited for small functional molecule delivery, and increasing evidence indicates that they have a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication.

In contrast to transplanted exogenous MSCs, the MSC-derived exosomes do not proliferate, are less immunogenic, and are easier to store and deliver than MSCs

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