Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) – derived exosomes have shown promise in the field of regenerative medicine including treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), and 3D MSC culture further enhances generation of exosomes and therapeutic effects.
Exosomes are more amenable to development as an “off-the-shelf” therapeutic agent that can be delivered to patients in a timely manner. They also reduce the safety risks inherent in administering viable cells such as the risk of occlusion in microvasculature or unregulated growth of transplanted cells.
Unlike transplantation of exogenous neural stem/progenitor cells, MSC-derived exosomes that stimulate endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells to repair injured brain may have several main advantages including:
a) No ethical issue of embryonic and fetal cells
b) Less invasiveness
c) Low or no immunogenicity
d) Low or no tumorigenicity
Exosomes are promising therapeutic agents because their complex cargo of proteins and genetic materials has diverse biochemical potential to participate in multiple biochemical and cellular processes, an important
attribute in the treatment of complex diseases with multiple secondary injury mechanisms involved, such as TBI.
Further investigation is warranted to take full advantage of regenerative potential of cell free MSC-derived exosomes, including the choice of MSC sources and their culture conditions, as these have been shown to impact the functional properties of the exosomes.